Enforcing Legal Measures against Illegal Fishing by Foreign Fishermen in Territorial Waters: Challenges and Solutions


  • Tofik Y. Chandra Faculty of Law, Universitas Jayabaya, East Jakarta, Jakarta 13210, Indonesia
  • Ji Hyun Park Law Faculty, Youngsan University, Busan 50510, South Korea


Law enforcement, Crime, Illegal fishing, Exclusive Economic Zone


Abstract. Illegal fishing is the unauthorized or unofficial act of capturing fish. This activity is carried out illegally by foreign fishermen. The illegal fishing of fish has caused financial losses to the country, driven by the increasing global demand for fish and other seafood. Law enforcement at sea plays a crucial role in upholding the credibility and sovereignty of the state. The objectives of this research are to analyze the forms of punishment given to perpetrators of illegal fishing crimes by foreign fishermen and to analyze law enforcement against foreign fishermen in Indonesian waters. This research uses a qualitative research method with a normative juridical approach. Legal materials used are obtained through legal research or a literature review of primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials. The results of this study conclude that the form of punishment for the crime of illegal fishing is regulated in Law No. 45 of 2009 concerning Fisheries, where the punishment is a fine without the option of imprisonment as an alternative if the fine is not paid. However, there are challenges in enforcing the law against foreign nationals involved in illegal fishing if Indonesia does not have an extradition agreement with the home country of those foreign nationals. This means that when a foreign national becomes a suspect, Indonesia does not have the authority to detain them, including for the purposes of investigation. To overcome this challenge, law enforcement against foreign fishermen engaged in illegal fishing in Indonesian waters involves coordination efforts between various agencies and institutions. In addition, cooperation between countries related to fishing activities needs to be established so that in the event of a crime committed by foreign fishermen, the government can impose imprisonment because there is a cooperation agreement with the foreign fishermen’s home country.

Abstrak. Penangkapan ikan ilegal adalah tindakan penangkapan ikan yang tidak sah atau tidak resmi. Kegiatan ini dilakukan secara ilegal oleh nelayan asing. Penangkapan ikan secara ilegal telah menimbulkan kerugian finansial bagi negara, didorong oleh meningkatnya permintaan global terhadap ikan dan makanan laut lainnya. Penegakan hukum di laut berperan penting dalam menegakkan kredibilitas dan kedaulatan negara. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis bentuk-bentuk hukuman yang diberikan kepada pelaku kejahatan illegal fishing yang dilakukan nelayan asing dan menganalisis penegakan hukum terhadap nelayan asing di perairan Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan yuridis normatif. Bahan hukum yang digunakan diperoleh melalui penelitian hukum atau kajian pustaka terhadap bahan hukum primer, sekunder, dan tersier. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa bentuk hukuman terhadap tindak pidana illegal fishing diatur dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 45 Tahun 2009 tentang Perikanan, dimana hukumannya berupa denda tanpa adanya pilihan hukuman penjara sebagai alternatif apabila denda tersebut tidak dibayarkan. Namun demikian, terdapat tantangan dalam penegakan hukum terhadap warga negara asing yang terlibat dalam penangkapan ikan ilegal jika Indonesia tidak memiliki perjanjian ekstradisi dengan negara asal warga negara asing tersebut. Artinya, ketika ada warga negara asing yang menjadi tersangka, Indonesia tidak mempunyai kewenangan untuk menahannya, termasuk untuk kepentingan penyidikan. Untuk mengatasi tantangan tersebut, penegakan hukum terhadap nelayan asing yang melakukan penangkapan ikan ilegal di perairan Indonesia melibatkan upaya koordinasi antar berbagai instansi dan lembaga. Selain itu, kerjasama antar negara yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan penangkapan ikan perlu terjalin sehingga apabila terjadi tindak pidana yang dilakukan oleh nelayan asing, maka pemerintah dapat menjatuhkan pidana penjara karena ada perjanjian kerjasama dengan negara asal nelayan asing tersebut.

Kata kunci: Penegakan hukum, Kejahatan, Penangkapan ikan ilegal, Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif


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How to Cite

Chandra, T., & Park, J. H. (2023). Enforcing Legal Measures against Illegal Fishing by Foreign Fishermen in Territorial Waters: Challenges and Solutions. Lex Publica, 10(2), 64–78. Retrieved from https://journal.appthi.org/index.php/lexpublica/article/view/205