Legal Regime of Genetically Modified Food: Developing Country in The Context


  • Saida Talukder Rahi Department of Law, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh
  • Anwar Hossan Sagor Law and Justice Division, Ministry of Law, Justice, and Parliamentary Affairs, Dhaka, Bangladesh



GMOs, Biosafety, CBD, Environment, Risk assessment


Multiple challenges of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) have led different countries to adopt quite different approaches for GM foods and crops. Among Developing Countries, In Bangladesh, commercial cultivation of GM crops is poised to receive approval, but the country faces constraints in reducing risks associated with the release and handling of GMOs. The primary goal of this study is to examine the various laws, policies, and regulations that Bangladesh has to regulate issues related to GM foods and to determine how current laws are applied to assess and manage risks associated with the introduction of GM crops. An analytical and qualitative approach was applied in this regard. In general, the concepts of intellectual property rights, trade, food safety, labeling, and public policy are relevant to GMOs. It is found that there are currently no laws enacted particularly to address the biosafety of GM crops and foods. Only the Biosafety Guidelines, a non-binding document, cover issues related to GMOs, but there is no effective enforcement. Apart from this, the Intellectual Property Rights Law does not comply with the requirements of TRIPS to address the environmental release of GMOs. Sanitary and phytosanitary regulation is very weak in enforcement. Additionally, the food safety law, labeling regulations, and risk assessment guidelines, principles of international environmental laws are not in application. This paper concluded that no comprehensive legal framework for dealing with biosafety-related issues exists. It recommends that Bangladesh should adopt a comprehensive law and policy governing biosafety.


Berbagai tantangan dari Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) telah menyebabkan berbagai negara mengadopsi pendekatan yang sangat berbeda untuk makanan dan tanaman GM. Di antara Negara Berkembang, Di Bangladesh, pembudidayaan tanaman GM secara komersial siap untuk menerima persetujuan, tetapi negara tersebut menghadapi kendala untuk mengurangi risiko yang terkait dengan pelepasan dan penanganan GMO. Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji berbagai undang-undang, kebijakan, dan peraturan yang dimiliki Bangladesh untuk mengatur masalah yang berkaitan dengan makanan GM dan untuk menentukan bagaimana undang-undang saat ini diterapkan untuk menilai dan mengelola risiko yang terkait dengan pengenalan tanaman GM. Pendekatan analitis dan kualitatif diterapkan dalam hal ini. Secara umum, konsep hak kekayaan intelektual, perdagangan, keamanan pangan, pelabelan, dan kebijakan publik relevan dengan transgenik. Ditemukan bahwa saat ini tidak ada undang-undang yang diberlakukan secara khusus untuk mengatasi keamanan hayati tanaman dan makanan GM. Hanya Pedoman Keamanan Hayati, sebuah dokumen yang tidak mengikat, yang mencakup isu-isu terkait GMO, tetapi tidak ada penegakan yang efektif. Selain itu, Undang-Undang Hak Kekayaan Intelektual tidak memenuhi persyaratan TRIPS untuk mengatasi pelepasan transgenik ke lingkungan. Regulasi sanitasi dan fitosanitari sangat lemah dalam penegakannya. Selain itu, undang-undang keamanan pangan, peraturan pelabelan, dan pedoman penilaian risiko, prinsip-prinsip hukum lingkungan internasional tidak diterapkan. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa tidak ada kerangka hukum yang komprehensif untuk menangani masalah terkait keamanan hayati. Ini merekomendasikan bahwa Bangladesh harus mengadopsi undang-undang dan kebijakan komprehensif yang mengatur keamanan hayati

Kata kunci: GMO, Keamanan Hayati, CBD, Lingkungan, Penilaian risiko


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How to Cite

Rahi, S. T., & Sagor, A. H. . (2022). Legal Regime of Genetically Modified Food: Developing Country in The Context. Lex Publica, 9(2), 67–87.