Effectiveness of Laws Related to Medical Negligence in Bangladesh


  • Mohammad Faruk Hossain Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia




Medical law, Medical negligence, Patients’ rights, Bangladesh



Medical negligence is a violation of the rights to health and life perpetrated by members of the medical professional group entrusted with preserving those rights. Because of increased issues related to medical negligence, numerous countries have introduced new legislation and established independent courts to enhance their healthcare laws. Sadly, medical negligence and malpractice are an issue in Bangladesh in the lack of elaborate or specific rules. In Bangladesh, many laws include numerous legal obligations for health professionals but are not adequately established. As a result, medical negligence and malpractice are causing substantial social consequences that neither the government nor the society expected or condoned. Given the problems and consequences, the goal of this study is to provide a depth elaboration of medical negligence, analyse the laws that currently exist in Bangladesh regarding medical negligence and identify the significant weaknesses in those laws, and, finally, make some recommendations for how Bangladesh can take practical steps toward preventing violations of patients’ rights to health care.


Kelalaian medis adalah pelanggaran terhadap hak atas kesehatan dan kehidupan yang dilakukan oleh anggota kelompok profesi medis yang dipercayakan untuk menjaga hak-hak tersebut. Karena meningkatnya masalah terkait kelalaian medis, banyak negara telah memperkenalkan undang-undang baru dan membentuk pengadilan independen untuk meningkatkan undang-undang perawatan kesehatan mereka. Sayangnya, kelalaian medis dan malpraktik menjadi masalah di Bangladesh karena kurangnya aturan yang rumit atau spesifik. Di Bangladesh, banyak undang-undang memasukkan banyak kewajiban hukum bagi profesional kesehatan tetapi tidak ditetapkan secara memadai. Akibatnya, kelalaian medis dan malpraktik menyebabkan konsekuensi sosial yang substansial yang tidak diharapkan atau dimaafkan oleh pemerintah maupun masyarakat. Mengingat masalah dan konsekuensinya, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan penjelasan mendalam tentang kelalaian medis, menganalisis undang-undang yang saat ini ada di Bangladesh mengenai kelalaian medis dan mengidentifikasi kelemahan signifikan dalam undang-undang tersebut, dan, akhirnya, membuat beberapa rekomendasi untuk bagaimana Bangladesh dapat mengambil langkah praktis untuk mencegah pelanggaran hak pasien atas perawatan kesehatan.


Ahmed, Hana Shams. Changing Face of Health care, 20th April 2008, Available At <http://hanashams.wordpress.com/2008/04/25/health-care/> Accessed on 13th August 2022.

Akter, Khandakar Kohinur. “A contextual analysis of the medical negligence in Bangladesh: laws and practices.” Northern University Journal of Law 4 (2013): 67-81.

Arnold, Louise, and David Thomas Stern. “What is medical professionalism.” Measuring medical professionalism (2006): 15-37.

Bangladesh Health Policy, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Available at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_health_policy> Accessed on 23rd July 2022.

Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council-1980, Professional Ethics and Code of Medical Conduct, p1-8 Available At <http://www.bmdc.org.bd/docs/codeofmedicalethics.pdf> accessed on 20th June 2022.

Billah, S.M. Masum. Law Commission’s proposal of making medical negligence law. The Daily Star, 20th April 2013.

Board, Sounding. “Medical professionalism in society.” The New England journal of medicine 341 (1999): 1612-16.

Bryden, Daniele, and Ian Storey. “Duty of care and medical negligence.” Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain 11, no. 4 (2011): 124-127.

Damayanti, S. What is medical negligence? What are the standard of care principles, 15th July 2011, Available at < http://pharmacyzoneustc.blogspot.com/2011/07/part-vi-implementation-of-existinglaws.html> Accessed on 21st June 2022.

Establish Health Courts, Common Good, Available at www.commongood.org/pages/establish-health courts Accessed on 12th September 2022.

Fact Sheet no.31 on the Right to Health, Office of the United Nations, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Publication Date, June 2008, Available at < http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/Factsheet31.pdf> Accessed on 20th September 2022.

Fitzgerald, Patrick John, ed. Salmond on jurisprudence. Sweet & Maxwell, 1966.

Government concerned at the quality of services at government hospitals, The Daily Ptothom Alo, 22nd September 2008.

Harris, Dean M., and Chien-Chang Wu. “Medical malpractice in the people’s Republic of China: the 2002 regulation on the handling of medical accidents.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 33, no. 3 (2005): 456-477.

Health court - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Available At Accessed on 12th September 2022.

Health ethics in six SEAR countries, World Health Organization (WHO), Health Ethics in South-East Asia,1991, Available at < http://www.hf.uib.no/i/filosofisk/seahen/vol1rev3.PDF>Accessed on 22nd June 2022.

High Court rules against doctor to take action, Bangla News 24, 14th September 2013.

Islam, Md Rabiul, and Shekh Farid. “Negligence in Government hospitals of Bangladesh: A dangerous trend.” Journal of Social Sciences 4, no. 5 (2015): 12-18.

Islam, Md Zahidul, “Medical Negligence in Malaysia and Bangladesh: A comparative study,” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Vol 14, no. 3 (2013): 82-87.

Joy, Dr. Belal Hosain. Health care laws in Bangladesh, 4th October 2011. Available at<http://www.scribd.com/doc/67389243/Healthcare-Laws-in-Bangladesh-Final>Accessed on 20th June 2022.

Karim, Sheikh Mohammad Towhidul, Mohammad Ridwan Goni, and Mohammad Hasan Murad. “Medical Negligence Laws and Patient Safety in Bangladesh: An analysis.” Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences 5, no. 2 (2013).

Keeton, Page. “Professional Malpractice.” Washburn LJ 17 (1977): 445.

Kumar, L., and B. K. Bastia. “Medical negligence-meaning and scope in India.” Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 51, no. 181 (2011).

Leflar, Robert B. “The regulation of medical malpractice in Japan.” Clinical orthopaedics and related research 467, no. 2 (2009): 443-449.

Mathiharan, K. State control of Medical Malpractice, Law & Medicine. An annual publication of the Institute of Law and Ethics in Medicine, National Law School of India University, Bangalore, Vol 4,1998-88.

Medico-Legal Handbook for physicans in Canada, 7th ed., 2010, Available at <http://www.cmpaacpm.ca/cmpapd04/docs/resource_files/ml_guides/com_medico_handbook-e.cfm> Accessed on 24 th July 2022.

Modi, Jaising Prabhudas. Modi’s Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology. Law Publishers, 2011.

Nazir, Taha, and Syed Muzzammil Masood Zaidi. “Review of the basic components of clinical pharmaceutical care in Pakistan.” Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 1 (2011): 168-173.

NHRC team to visit hospitals to monitor services, The Daily Star, 15th September 2010.

Nishat, Sultana. “Medical Negligence in Bangladesh; An Introduction.” Law Vision, Issue: 9 Department of Law, University of Chittagong, (2004-2005), 52.

Nur, Aqib Mohammed, and Ms. Sadia Siraj. “A research on “Medical Negligence: Law and Practice in Bangladesh.” (2016).

Nurunnabi, Mohammad, and Syed Kamrul Islam. “Accountability in the Bangladeshi privatized healthcare sector.” International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 25, no. 7 (2012): 625-644.

Radhakrishnan, S. Medical Negligence, 4 MLJ 1, 8 (2002).

S Toth, Robert. Medical Malpractice, Physician as Defendant, Legal Dynamics of Medical Encounters. American College of Legal Medicine, St. Lois, The CV Mosby Co. 1988,482-491.

SC orders Kolkata hospital to pay Rs 5.96 crore for medical negligence, Times of India, 24th October 2013.

Sultana, Zelina. “Medical Negligence in Bangladesh: An Argument for Strong Legal Protection.” Asia Pacific J. Health L. & Ethics 12 (2018): 69.

Swick, Herbert M. “Toward a normative definition of medical professionalism.” Academic medicine 75, no. 6 (2000): 612-616.

Tatu, Daniela. Medical negligence: In the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. Vol. 70. Key Editore, 2018.

Verma, Prof. SK. Legal Framework for Health Care in India, Indian Law Institute Publication, 1st ed, 2002, 158.

World Medical Association (WMA) Declaration of Geneva, adopted by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association at Geneva in 1948, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Available at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Geneva#cite_note-1 > Accessed on 12th August 2022.


A.S.Mittal v. State of U.P., AIR 1989 SC 1570

Bolam v. Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957)1 WLR 582.

Dr. Kunal Saha v. Dr. Sukumar Mukherjee and Ors. III (2006) CPJ 142 (NC).

Dr. Ravishankar v. Jery K. Thomas and Anr, II (2006) CPJ 138 (NC).

Indian Medical Association v. VP Shantha 3 CPR (1995) 412.

Pravat Kumar Mukherjee v. Ruby General Hospital and Ors, II (2005) CPJ35(NC).

Rashidullah v. State 21 DLR 709.


The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 1972.

The Consumer Rights Protection Act, 2009

The Contract Act, 1872.

The Medical and Dental Council Act, 1980.

The Penal Code, 1860.




How to Cite

Hossain, M. (2023). Effectiveness of Laws Related to Medical Negligence in Bangladesh. Lex Publica, 9(2), 29–48. https://doi.org/10.58829/lp.9.2.2022.29-48




Most read articles by the same author(s)