Author Guidelines

General Overview
The manuscript’s structure and content must generally show its uniqueness, novelty, thoroughness, contribution, and value. The manuscript’s content can be in the form of research results or articles that review meta-analytical thinking, new theories, or important problem-solving inputs.

Preparation of Manuscript
The main script file must be provided in Microsoft Word or RTF format in A4 size. In general, scripts are typed using the Times New Roman 12pt font, and the line spacing is 1 with a margin of 3 cm on each side. Authors are expected to divide the manuscript into two files. The first file is the title page containing the title, author’s name, affiliation, contact, and acknowledgment (if any), and the second is the main manuscript containing the abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, conclusion, and references. Other important and supportive files can be submitted as attachments.

Editors do not limit the number of pages for each manuscript; only the author must ensure that their main manuscript is between 5000 and 10000, including abstract, references, and tables. Manuscripts that are less than or exceed the specified word count will be returned to the author for revision before the editor reconsiders the manuscript.

Manuscripts must be written in English correctly and consistently. If authors feel their manuscript may require editing, we encourage them to use language editing services. It is important to eliminate possible grammatical errors. In addition, the language used must be inclusive and free from bias. Authors can learn more about this issue in the APA guidelines for bias-free language.

Part of the manuscript’s contents
Article titles should be specific, effective, and reflect the content of your text. A good title is no more than 15 words. Please avoid using unusual formulas and abbreviations.

Full names (all) of the authors must be written accurately without including any titles. Please ensure that the author’s last name is not abbreviated. Mark each author with a numeric superscript to indicate their affiliation, country of origin, and contacts. A brief biography (no more than 100 words) can be added. Make it clear who will handle correspondence at all stages and in the publication process. Ensure the email address and contact details provided are kept up to date by the concerned author.

The abstract is not an introduction or conclusion, so it should briefly and unequivocally state the research objectives, methods, main results, and conclusions. It consists of 200-250 words in a single paragraph consistently. It must be able to provide a strong and comprehensive description of the manuscript’s contents and how important the article is.

Keywords consist of 4 - 9 specific words or phrases related to the discussed theme. Avoid common terms, plurals, conjunctions, and abbreviations, if possible.


A. Original article
Manuscripts submitted to this journal should have main headings in the form of an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion, reference.
- Introduction. It should briefly place the study in its broad context and highlight why it is important. It should define the purpose of the work and its significance. The specific hypothesis being tested can be presented.
- Literature review. The current state of the research field should be carefully reviewed, and major publications cited. Controversial and distorted hypotheses can be emphasized.
- Methodology. The methods and procedures used in new research should be described in detail to allow other researchers to imitate or duplicate them. Meanwhile, established methods can be adequately described and quoted appropriately.
- Results. It provides a concise and precise description of the test results, interpretations, and conclusions that can be drawn. Presentations using tables and illustrations can enrich the presentation.
- Discussion. The author should present the significance of the results and not just repeat them. It allows the reader to assess the analysis and interpretation carried out and why and then can confirm or reject the conclusions. This section can also be combined with Results.
- Conclusion. Important points of the study are emphasized here but not to replicate the abstract. Suggestions for further research, flaws, and limitations of the study should be presented.

B. Conceptual or review article
- Introduction.
- Discussion (with sub-subtitle discussion as needed).
- Conclusion.

Please use standard headings to help readers navigate the manuscript quickly. Using numbers sequentially can help with navigation.

All artwork or illustrations (graphics, diagrams, line drawings, web pages/screenshots, still images, etc.) must be ensured that they do not infringe copyright and are presented in good format and adequate resolution (for the sake of the printed version). Ensure that the data presented in it do not duplicate the results described elsewhere in the article. Please send the table as editable text (in .doc, .rtf, or Excel format) and not as an image. Use a font between 9 and 10 pt for tables and other possible illustrations.

Ensure abbreviations throughout the article consistency. Acronyms with more than four letters are written in lowercase except for the first letter. Abbreviations are written in capital letters. They should be mentioned at the beginning of the article.

Please follow the rules and conventions according to the international system of units (SI). If another equation is mentioned, give its equivalent in SI (

If there is more than one appendix, please label each with a capital letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B). Each appendix should have an appropriate title.

Explain the role of all those who provided financial support for your research and/or prepared the article, and briefly describe the role of the sponsor, if any, in the research design; in data collection, analysis and interpretation; in writing reports; and in the decision to submit articles for publication. Acknowledgments are organized in a separate section at the end of the article before references.

Conflict of Interest
Authors must identify and state any circumstances or personal interests that could be deemed to influence the representation or interpretation of the reported research results.

This journal uses footnote citations in The Chicago Manual of Style. The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. More than one reference from the same author in the same year must be identified with the letters’ a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, and placed, without spaces, after the year of publication. Please ensure that any references cited in the text are also in the reference list and vice versa.

Examples of writing citations and reference lists

A. Book


  1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time(New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
  2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life(New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened notes

  1. Smith, Swing Time, 320.
  2. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.


B. Chapter or other part of an edited book

In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.


  1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

Shortened note

  1. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.

Bibliography entry

Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.


C. Journal article

In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.


  1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.
  2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10,
  3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

Shortened notes

  1. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.
  2. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
  3. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.


  1. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465,

Shortened note

  1. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.

Bibliography entry

Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73.


D. Thesis or dissertation


  1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Learand Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.

Shortened note

  1. Rutz, “King Lear,” 158.

Bibliography entry

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.


E. Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).


  1. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017,
  2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017,
  3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51,

Shortened notes

  1. Google, “Privacy Policy.”
  2. “Yale Facts.”
  3. Bouman, “Black Hole.”

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.

Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017.